A jus gentium principle for the protection of historic monuments and works of art in times of war started to be codified in the nineteenth century, but it was only with the Peace Convention at the Hague in 1899 that an universal forum to discuss humanitarian principles took place. Despite its occidental origin, the principle for the protection of such property was implemented on the Asian continent during pivotal conflicts in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that marked its history. Thus, a study of the acceptance by the Asian States of this and similar humanitarian principles, since they did not take part in the process of drafting them, is important to understand the amplitude of the consensus. In the present article, the application of the principle for the protection of historic monuments and works of art in times of war in Asian conflicts before the First World War will be discussed. The practice in two conflicts, the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895 and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, will be analyzed.
By entering this website, you consent to the use of technologies, such as cookies and analytics, to customise content, advertising and provide social media features. This will be used to analyse traffic to the website, allowing us to understand visitor preferences and improving our services. Learn more