Sexual violence during armed conflicts and other situations of violence has long been widespread, with grave and devastating consequences. The current Special Report follows up on the objectives and plans of action presented in the Special Appeal 2016. It covers: the background and goals of the four-year initiative; the developments, activities and progress – at headquarters and field levels – that occurred in 2016; and the activities in nine contexts, as examples of the ICRC’s efforts to protect people from sexual violence, prevent the recurrence of abuse and assist the victims. The last section presents the expenses for activities related to the initiative and the contributions made towards the Special Appeal 2016. In 2016, the ICRC continued to focus on improving the planning and implementation of activities in response to the risks and consequences of sexual violence. It took stock, through an ongoing review, of the progress made and challenges encountered during the 2013–2016 period, and initiated efforts to better monitor and evaluate its activities and to draw lessons for future action. The section summarizing the activities carried out by the ICRC’s delegations in the Central African Republic, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Jordan, Lebanon, Mali, South Sudan and the Syrian Arab Republic, and in Papua New Guinea by the Suva regional delegation, demonstrates the ICRC’s multifaceted response to sexual violence and the circumstances under which these activities were implemented.