Misdirected : targeting and attack under the DoD Manual
Adil Ahmad Haque
The United States Department of Defense Law of War Manual : commentary and critique
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2018
When do civilians lose their protection in attack ? What steps must combatants take to confirm that particular civilians are liable to attack ? When must combatants refrain from attack in case of doubt ? In this chapter the author attempts to explain that the United States Department of Defense Manual's substantive standard for the loss of civilian protection is broad and vague ; furthermore its evidentiary standard for determining that specific civilians have lost their protection seams weak and subjective ; and its license to attack civilians in case of doubt seams unreasonable and dangerous.