Male victims and female perpetrators of sexual violence in conflict
Anne-Marie De Brouwer and Laetitia Ruiz
Gender and war : international and transitional justice perspectives
Cambridge [etc.] : Intersentia, 2019
This chapters deals with the too often marginalised categories of conflicts situations with regards to sexual violence, namely male victims and female perpetrators. It first explores the lack of awareness and knowledge surrounding both male victims and female perpetrators of sexual violence and the underlying reasons for such violence. It then discusses how gender norms regarding sexual violence impact on all aspects of the international justice process. In the case of male victims of sexual violence, attention is drawn to the tendency to erase the sexual nature of the crime by using a more general label, such as torture. It is argued that this state of affairs derives from gender norms, which make male victimisation, and especially male sexual victimisation, inconsistent with ideals of masculinity. In the case of female perpetrators of conflict-related sexual violence, it is argued that the existence of female perpetrators of sexual violence in conflict is at odds with ideals of feminity. The chapter ends with some concluding remarks on the ways forward in understanding and prosecuting male sexual victimisation and sexual violence perpetrated by women.