In 2016, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) carried out a study to take stock of current progress in implementing the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (the Kampala Convention). As the first ever legally binding international instrument of its kind, the Kampala Convention represents a significant step forward in reaffirming the rights of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the face of a growing displacement problem in Africa. The stocktaking exercise grew because of the recognition of the value of the Kampala Convention and the urgent need to make it as effective as possible. The ICRC was involved from the outset in the drafting of the Kampala Convention and, since its adoption, has been working on promoting its ratification and implementation. The stocktaking exercise, therefore, is part of the ICRC's continuous support to the Kampala Convention. It is also an additional step within the framework of the ICRC's long-term operational engagement in addressing the needs of the displaced and their host communities affected by armed conflict and other situations of violence in Africa.