European Union common security and defense policy operations
The practice of shared responsibility in international law
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2017
In 1999, the European Union decided to develop a Common Security and Defence Policy. The core of this policy consists of military and civilian crisis management operations (the terms 'operations' and 'missions' are used interchangeably). Since 2003, the EU has launched some thirty such operations. These operations involve the EU and its member states. Thus the question arises whether responsibility for the conduct of CSDP operations lies with the EU and/or its member states.