Readers of a volume on military ethics are likely to be less familiar with medical than military ethics so it is useful to begin there. Medical ethics governs the practice of medicine by protecting the rights of patients. While legal rights sometimes come into play (as in abortion, for example), moral rights generally dominate discussions of medical ethics. When these rights become pressing, some nations may legislate or regulate certain practices (such as euthanasia). Patient rights include a person’s right to medical care, autonomous decision-making and informed consent, confidentiality, and privacy. These rights impose duties on nations and on caregivers. In most of the world, developed nations provide a level of medical care to allow individuals to maintain a dignified life while enjoining physicians to act with beneficence.