This textbook gives an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the law of armed conflict or international humanitarian law. The author has traced the history of the laws of war and examined their relations with human rights and refugee laws. The topics covered include protection to the victims of war : prisoners, civilians, women, children, journalists, the natural environment and cultural property. The book contains an updated account of the functioning of the International Criminal Court, and explores the concept of command responsibility, as well as the area of private military and security companies. Besides discussing the law during air and naval warfare, the author has critically examined certain challenges which humanitarian law is facing today from cyber warfare; drones, autonomous lethal weapons and nuclear weapons.