Chemical weapons disarmament is on track. However, the alleged use of chemical weapons in Syria has added a new sense of urgency to it. The use of such weapons despite a global ban has not only exposed the normative and institutional deficits in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), but has also underlined the need to make it a truly universal regime and to overcome the new challenges associated with the rapid growth of chemical industry worldwide. This article begins with a statement of the problem and then traces the evolution and development of the chemical weapons regime in historical perspective. It is followed by a discussion of States' obligations under the CWC. It then proceeds to give an account of the Organization of the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons as the implementing body of the CWC. The last section of the article is devoted to challenges related to the elimination of chemical weapons in Syria.