Is it in the enlightened self-interest of armed forces to have perpetrators of core international crimes brought to justice? This anthology adds the ‘carrot’ perspective of self-interest or incentives to the common rhetoric of ‘stick’ – legal obligations and political pressures. Twenty authors from around the world discuss why military actors themselves often prefer accountability. The self-interests presented in this book are multi-dimensional: from internal professionalization to external legitimacy; from institutional reputation to individual honour; from operational effectiveness to strategic stakes; from historical lessons to contemporary needs; from religious beliefs to aspirations for rule of law; from minimizing civilian interference to preempting international scrutiny. The case is made for long-term self-interest in accountability and increased military ‘ownership’ in repressing core international crimes.