Force protection, military advantage, and "constant care" for civilians : the 1991 bombing of Iraq
The American way of bombing : changing ethical and legal norms, from flying fortresses to drones
Ithaca (Etats-Unis) ; London : Cornell University Press, 2014
In this chapter Henry Shue discusses the complex triangular balance among military advantage, force protection and "constant care" for civilians. He focuses on the 1991 war against Iraq, led by the United States, in which air power played a major role. He draws upon the relevant articles of the First Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions, particularly Article 57(3), which he understands to have customary status in international law. He describes the U.S. aerial destruction of the entire Iraqi electrical grid as a violation of the norms of proportionality, an excessive favoring of force protection and military advantage over due care for civilians.