Responsibilities of armed opposition groups and corporations for violations of international law and possible sanctions
Jordan J. Paust
Responsibilities of the non-state actor in armed conflict and the market place : theoretical considerations and empirical findings
Leiden ; Boston : Brill Nijhoff, 2015
Jordan Paust elaborates on the relationship between the "types of responsibilities" and "types of possible sanction responses", a relationship arising from a historical overview of cases that have come before US Courts, and which provide compelling arguments that the problematique of non-state actor (NSA) responsibility has existed at least since the mid-19th century. In distinguishing between various types of responsibility: "direct perpetrator, complicity or aiding and abetting, conspiracy, and joint criminal enterprise responsibility", he argues that the actual sanctioning regime applied to the various NSAs reflects the type of responsibility envisaged by the sanctioning actor. Sanctions according to Paust can be political, economic, juridical, and military, and potentially financial and cultural. The effectiveness of sanctions depends on the activities and wealth of the NSA in question.