Different activities conducted by armed forces and their personnel are governed by different branches of international law, in particular international humanitarian law, international criminal law and human rights law. In recent times, the growing number and jurisprudence of international jurisdictions have also addressed the activities of military personnel engaged in different scenarios, including the internal organisation of armed forces and forms of violation of different rules of international law. Relevant decisions include, for instance, the international ad hoc criminal Tribunals, special courts, and truth and reconciliation commissions, as well as human rights courts and the International Court of Justice. This book explores the relationship between armed forces and international tribunals, courts and non-judicial bodies, taking into consideration the case-law developed by those jurisdictions. The contributors are legal academics from various European universities’ law schools, with a specific expertise in international human rights, criminal and humanitarian law.