This article delves into issues of individual and State (criminal) liability for (lethal) drone operations; a yet unexplored area given the proliferation of drone attacks in recent years. The criteria under which military and political leaders can (possibly) be held criminally accountable for conducting drone attacks within and outside an armed conflict are outlined, based upon ICTY, ICC and ECHR-case law. Against this background, the discrepancies and pitfalls of the U.S. policy vis-à-vis drone attacks are discerned, as well as the subject-matter of responsibilities of third states which facilitate principal States such as the U.S. in these attacks.
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