The new Tallinn Manual on International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare represents an important professional achievement which is, however, less than comprehensive. The Manual deliberately focuses on (international and non-international) armed conflict, whereas the prohibition of intervention below the threshold of armed attack is not discussed in detail. Dealing with a phenomenon that may arise in future but has hardly occurred so far in the practice of states and non-state actors, the Manual refrains from addressing legal problems of cyber security outside armed conflicts in a systematic manner. It does so even at the risk of misunderstandings for users who may tend to military action in situations where such action would be unlawful, whereas law enforcement and political cooperation would be required. Relevant issues including state sovereignty and sovereign immunity, accountability for cyber operations, effects of armed conflicts on rules applicable in peacetime and criminal jurisdiction are of practical significance in the context of cyber operations and need to be further elaborated. As far as the jus in bello is concerned, the Manual explains important principles and rules as applicable to cyber warfare, but it also takes some controversial positions and thus challenges further efforts to develop best practice standards for the conduct of military operations, solve interoperability problems and address policy issues in a convincing manner. Efforts to improve cyber security in international cooperation deserve to be continued.
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