In August 2004 the ICJ brought its network of jurists from around the world to Berlin, for the 2004 Biennial Conference. The meeting concluded with the 160 jurists adopting the ICJ Declaration on upholding human rights and the rule of law in combating terrorism (Berlin Declaration). The 11 succinct principles of the Berlin Declaration set out the legal norms that should guide the counter-terrorism measures of every State. This legal commentary to the Berlin Declaration explains the international law, jurisprudence and expert interpretations that underlie the Berlin Declaration. It explains what the principles mean in practice and what international legal standards apply. The last chapter examines the issue of complementarity with international humanitarian law.