Islamic law has several branches, and the one relevant in times of wars and armed conflicts is al-siyar, which is the Islamic conception of international relations that generally prescribe the behavior of Muslim States in dealing with non-Muslim States. Human life is one of the five human interests; its protection is one of the objectives of Islamic law. The other four are faith of Muslims, dignity, intellect, and property. Al-siyar contains, among other things, the law of war, the law of peace, and neutrality. The concept of jihad is the main issue in al-siyar. With regard to the humanitarian aspect, al-siyar enumerates the permissible and the forbidden conducts in the State of war, including conducts of belligerence towards civilians and prisoners of war. Civilians are people who do not take part in hostilities, while prisoners of war are captured combatants. This article focuses on three aspects. The first aspect provides protection and assistance to civilians who are affected by armed conflicts and natural disasters. It is to be noted that the conduct of Muslim States in response to natural disaster is not covered by al-siyar. The second aspect deals with the methods and means of warfare, while the third concerns the treatment of prisoners of war.