This piece introduces the technology and effectors of an offensive attack: access, vulnerability and payload. It then describes the two types of offensive cyber operation: cyber attack and cyber exploitation. Cyber attacks are destructive in nature and cause adversary computer systems and networks to become unavailable or untrustworthy and therefore less useful to the adversary. Cyber exploitations are non-destructive, as they seek to obtain information resident on or transiting through an adversary’s computer systems or networks, information that would otherwise be kept confidential. After going through the key characteristics, operational considerations and possible goals for an offensive cyber operations, the contributor raises some IHL ambiguities and fundamental questions posed by these operations.