During the last several years we have witnessed impacts on, and changes in, modern warfare, to include cyber operations in Estonia and Georgia, civilianization of the battlefield in Iraq and Afghanistan, use of unmanned systems in Yemen and Pakistan, a lawless enemy invoking “lawfare”—particularly as it relates to civilian deaths and injuries incurred during lawful attacks on enemy targets—to undermine military operations and an enhanced level of public and judicial scrutiny of military actions. Legal practitioners, both military and civilian, and legal academics have worked to identify how international law governs these changing aspects of warfare and to determine if there are any shortfalls requiring changes to the existing legal framework. The Naval War College hosted a 2010 conference entitled “International Law and the Changing Character ofWar.” The conference brought together international law scholars and practitioners to examine the challenge to international law posed by the changing character of war.
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