Gaps in the law’s response structure will prove highly susceptible to low-intensity cyber attacks, leaving victim States to chose between enduring damaging intrusions and disruptions or undertaking arguably unlawful unilateral responses. CNA will produce a significantly expanded cast of players, creating a complex and uncontrollable multipolar environment comprising farmore States and non-State actors pursuing farmore disparate interests than in previous security settings. CNA are unprecedented conflict levelers. CNA technology is inexpensive, easy to acquire and use, and capable of masking identity. CNA permit otherwise weak States and actors to challenge security hegemony at low economic and security cost. Ultimately, these developments will test States’ commitment to the collective security arrangement of the Charter and its accompanying restraints on unilateral uses of force to a far greater extent than previously experienced.