Schools and armed conflict : a global survey of domestic laws and state practice protecting schools from attack and military use
Human Rights Watch
New York [etc.] : Human Rights Watch, 2011
159 p. : photogr., tabl. ; 27 cm
This report examines—in three separate chapters—law and state practice relevant to three issues: (1) protecting civilian objects (buildings and other infrastructure) from intentional attack; (2) protecting education buildings from intentional attack, and (3) deterring education facilities from being used or occupied by government security forces and non-state armed groups. Each chapter begins by examining the relevant international law, including both the international treaties that bind states that have ratified them, and what is known as customary international law, which is binding on all states. The report then analyzes how different countries are applying protections for education facilities within their own domestic law, especially within criminal law and military law. Finally, each chapter examines relevant examples of state behavior in providing these protections. Such examples can be particularly useful because state practice—specially when carried out in a way that indicates that the country accepts that it is legally required to act in a certain way—can be influential in understanding and developing customary international law.