Evolution without progress ? : humanitarianism in a world of hurt
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International organization, Vol. 63, no. 4, Fall 2009, p. 621-663
This article draws from evolutionary social science and organizational theory to develop a framework to explore the initial diversity of the meaning and practices of humanitarianism; how the combination of environmental mechanisms and organizational culture led many humanitarian agencies to adapt to their environment in ways that incorporated politics; and the subsequent countermovement by some agencies who wanted to purify humanitarianism.