Unmanned aerial vehicles and other remotely controlled or "virtual" military technologies are refashioning the conduct of military operations, the functioning of military institutions, and even the objectives of war itself. Virtual technologies are unexpectedly and ironically giving unprecedented traction, transparency, and relevance to venerable jus in bello principles protecting civilians from the effects of hostilities, and are forcing states to confront revitalized and new duties to avoid causing harm to civilian populations.
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